In today's selection -- from Focus: The Hidden Driver of Excellence by Daniel Goleman. The oft-cited 10,000-hour rule, which states that you must spend 10,000 hours practicing a task to attain mastery, is only half true:
"The '10,000-hour rule' -- that this level of practice holds the secret to great success in any field -- has become sacrosanct gospel, echoed on websites and recited as litany in high-performance workshops. The problem: it's only half true.
"If you are a duffer at golf, say, and make the same mistakes every time you try a certain swing or putt,10,000 hours of practicing that error will not improve your game. You'll still be a duffer, albeit an older one.
"No less an expert than Anders Ericsson, the Florida State University psychologist whose research on expertise spawned the 10,000 -- hour rule of thumb, told me, "You don't get benefits from mechanical repetition, but by adjusting your execution over and over to get closer to your goal" ...
"Apart from sports like basketball or football that favor physical traits such as height and body size, says Ericsson, almost anyone can achieve the highest levels of performance with smart practice. ...
"Ericsson argues that the secret of winning is 'deliberate practice,' where an expert coach takes you through well-designed training over months or years, and you give it your full concentration.
"Hours and hours of practice are necessary for great performance, but not sufficient. How experts in any domain pay attention while practicing makes a crucial difference. For instance, in his much-cited study of violinists -- the one that showed the top tier had practiced more than 10,000 hours -- Ericsson found the experts did so with full concentration on improving a particular aspect of their performance that a master teacher identified.
"Smart practice always includes a feedback loop that lets you recognize errors and correct them -- which is why dancers use mirrors. Ideally that feedback comes from someone with an expert eye and so every world-class sports champion has a coach. If you practice without such feedback, you don't get to the top ranks.
"The feedback matters and the concentration does, too -- not just the hours. ...
"Daydreaming defeats practice; those of us who browse TV while working out will never reach the top ranks. Paying full attention seems to boost the mind's processing speed, strengthen synaptic connections, and expand or create neural networks for what we are practicing.
"At least at first. But as you master how to execute the new routine, repeated practice transfers control of that skill from the top-down system for intentional focus to bottom-up circuits that eventually make its execution effortless. At that point you don't need to think about it -- you can do the routine well enough on automatic."
"And this is where amateurs and experts part ways. Amateurs are content at some point to let their efforts become bottom-up operations. After about fifty hours of training --whether in skiing or driving-people get to that 'good-enough' performance level, where they can go through the motions more or less effortlessly. They no longer feel the need for concentrated practice, but are content to coast on what they've learned. No matter how much more they practice in this bottom-up mode, their improvement will be negligible.
"The experts, in contrast, keep paying attention top-down, intentionally counteracting the brain's urge to automatize routines. They concentrate actively on those moves they have yet to perfect, on correcting what's not working in their game, and on refining their mental models of how to play the game, or focusing on the particulars of feedback from a seasoned coach. Those at the top never stop learning: if at any point they start coasting and stop such smart practice, too much of their game becomes bottom-up and their skills plateau."
author: Daniel Goleman
title: Focus: The Hidden Driver of Excellence
publisher: Harper Collins Publishing
date: Copyright 2013 by Daniel Goleman